MUSICTEACHERS.CO.UK VOLUME 2 ISSUE 10, APRIL 2001  
Online Journal

Analysis

Because of the relative length of this extract, a full analysis is not provided, although important features are highlighted.

Key: D major (tonic major)

No. of bars: 82

Structure: antiphonal homophony + fugato + imitative coda

Terminology:
homophony; fugue/fugato; subject/countersubject; transition; stretto; stretto; half/full-close; tessitura; cycle of fifths

Bar What happens Comment
1-15 Soprano intonation of the opening words, accompanied by upper strings (bars 1-2), is contrasted with tutti choir and orchestral homophony that follows a tonic-dominant orientation: the sopranos and first violins reiterate the solo in bars in bars 3-4.
The solo and choral alternation continues through to bar 15 with similar material. However, bars 9-10 repeat bars 3-4 and bars 11-12 repeat bars 5-6, although the text requires a modification of the rhythm.
A relfexion of Gabrieli's antiphonal practices?
The music exudes rhythmic vitality, which, coupled with the use of full orchestra and strong tonic-dominant orientation, emphasises the conviction of the text. Despite this overriding tonic-dominant feeling, there is still harmonic invention; note in bar 4 the transitory modulation to e minor, achieved through the introduction D-sharp. This, in fact, pre-echoes bars 7-8, where the solo soprano makes a stronger reference to that key.
The solo part in the original version of bar 5 was in fact the same as the tutti soprano of bar 6.
With the repetition of previously-heard material in bars 10-12 comes an increase in the complexity of the scoring, although harmonically it remains the same.
16-22.1 Transitional material here over a tonic pedal, moving at first towards the subdominant (G major) through the use of a C-natural in bar 15, but returning to the tonic in bar 18.
A transitory modulation to A major (the dominant) occurs in bar 21 by the use of the dominant seventh chord of A major (E7) to herald the opening of the first fugue, which begins on the dominant.
There is a change of tessitura and dynamic for this transition – note how the upper strings become syncopated, providing an exciting forward momentum, whilst simultaneously outlining the voice parts (v1=sop; v2=ten; bassi=bass).
22.1-61 First fugue: The subject begins on the dominant, but moves to the tonic through a series of dominant 7th progressions – B major – e minor; A major – D major. The shape of the 2-bar subject is triadic, following the harmonic outline. The countersubject, beginning at bar 22 in the orchestra, is taken up by the basses in 24.
The tenors enter with a tonal answer (24), starting on the tonic.A second countersubject occurs in the bass at bar 26; whilst initially a device to establish the harmonic progression, it also gains motivic significance as the fugue progresses.
Stretto occurs for the first time at bars 32-33 – at a distance of one bar. In the following passage more tonal movement occurs, with transitory modulations to b minor (32-36), A major (37-41) and e minor (45). Stretto in the soprano, alto and tenor parts, beginning at bar 46 gradually leads to a dominant pedal (A) in the bass (bar 54), accompanied by the highest entry of the subject in the first violins. In bars 57-60 the strong return to the tonic (D major) is approached through a chain of five half-closes and a broadening of the music through longer note-lengths and simplification of the choral parts.
The modulation is achieved through a well-used technical device known as a cycle of fifths. The triadic nature provides a strong melodic shape, possibly in keeping with the words. There is no codetta, a device often attached to the end of fugue subjects to modulate to either the tonic or dominant for the answer, since the subject itself is modulatory.
From here until the bar 58, the strings follow the vocal parts, whilst the trumpets and timpani help to affirm the dominant harmony that begins at 30 and 37.
Haydn employs the usual important fugal features such as subject, countersubject and stretto.The half-closes between bars 57 and 60 are a typical modulatory device used by composers of the High Baroque and Classical periods. Note also the violin figuration, known as a battery, which
  1. heightens the tension and sense of excitement, and
  2. outlines harmonic progressions.
62-71.1 The coda is constructed mostly over a tonic pedal, and is sung until bar 77 by solo voices. The bass enters in bar 71 with the a motif taken from bar 16 of the Gloria, thus creating sense of unity within the work. This begins with a rise from dominant (A) to tonic (D) – with corresponding harmony – thus affirming the concluding nature of the section through a series of 6 full and half closes. The soprano's entry does not utilise the same motif until the coda's second bar, its opening shape relating to the arpeggiated figure in the first violins, and the alto's entry avoids the leap up to a top G for reasons of tessitural practicality. A tonic or dominant pedal occurs frequently in fugal writing of the High Baroque and Classical periods – note that its function is purely to heighten the sense of expectation and excitement: its function is not harmonic.
The use of previously-used motivic material (from the Gloria) provides a sense of compositional unity.
71.2-82 At bar 71 a perfect cadence is followed by a repeat of this previous passage, with the alto entry this time preceding the sopranos. The orchestration is thickened; the timpani add a tremolo; the organ, in place of woodwind, plays a decorated version of the soprano line and the trumpets join in at bar 75, two bars before the full chorus. The change from quavers to semiquavers in the first violins adds a final burst of energy to the texture, culminating in a two octave rising D major scale in bar 80 over a triumphant perfect cadence. A final, tutti perfect cadence emphatically closes the movement.


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